Wednesday, 12 July 2017

4 Lessons Learned from 2 Years of Seminary

I recently completed my 2nd year at the Church of Pakistan Diocesan seminary. 

I enrolled in 2015 as a non-diocesan student with the impression that this is something I will do alongside my job and other daily activities. Something that will not require much effort. Something that will hardly add anything to what I already know about my faith. Something that will give me a prestigious certificate of theology by doing the bare minimum.

How wrong I was! Going to seminary has changed me completely, and I still have a year to go. Here are 4 valuable lessons that I have learned so far:

#1 Patience is a Virtue

A seminary, like any educational institution, brings together people from all walks of life, and in this case, from all kinds of theological backgrounds. This includes both the teachers and students. 

If you lack patience, you will not be able to survive in seminary, where your prior beliefs and assumptions are questioned at every level, and you have to spend day and night with people who don't share and sometimes even oppose your views. 

You then take this patience on the field, where without any prior training you are asked to assist priests in leading the worship. Wine spills, you forget your prayers, you stand when you are supposed to sit and sit where you are supposed to stand. And all this infront of people who do not hesitate pointing your mistakes behind your back as well as in public. 

On a deeper level, we are to be patient because we don't always understand God's plans. Not all prayers are answered and not all theological issues are settled. We just have to trust God and accept His presence and support. That's what patience really means. 

#2 Know your Denomination

I study at an ecumenical seminary and wholeheartedly agree to the philosophy. But achieving inter and intra-denominational unity depends on knowing the history and beliefs of one's denomination. The church in Pakistan is in a mess, where even cults do not know their theology! 

This leads to great confusion and useless debates that can be resolved or at least toned down if people learn to do theology first in their own faith tradition and then in a broader perspective. 


#3 Know How to Hold Controversial Opinions

Every Christian has a theological opinion that fellow believers deem controversial. Many views although supported by scripture are offensive to the established mindset. 

Seminary has taught me firstly how to evaluate my own views in the light of theological methodology, and secondly how to present them causing little or no offence. One helpful tip is to speak your mind only when someone asks you to!


#4 No One Cares

This follows from point #1. Seminary has been a great lesson in humility for me. Being assistant to half a dozen priests has taught me not to think too highly of myself.

No one cares. People forget your mistakes . They also forget your sermons! The moments of glory are far and few between. On most days, things are just routine. May I say boring?

That is why Christian ministry is about faithfulness, not success. This has also enabled to be not too stress over my mistakes, but improve my skills confidently. 

I am a certified introvert (INTJ), but humility has made me comfortable among people. Seminary has definitely changed me for the better, and I thank God for that...




Wednesday, 31 May 2017

Servant of the Lord - Conclusion

Isaiah 52:13-53:12-The Suffering Servant

According to the Expositor’s Bible Commentary, this ‘passage speaks so eloquently of the work of Christ that even the inclusion of his name could add but little more to the extent of its disclosure of him’[1]

It is this song that we will focus in the greatest detail. The verses build up an atmosphere of great excitement as it is a revelation of special significance[2]. We also see a vivid, priestly language in these verses.

This is the longest servant song, which is why we will discuss in 2 sections.

Isaiah 52:13-15

See, my servant will act wisely; he will be raised and lifted up and highly exalted. Just as there were many who were appalled at him— his appearance was so disfigured beyond that of any human being and his form marred beyond human likeness—so he will sprinkle many nations, and kings will shut their mouths because of him. For what they were not told, they will see, and what they have not heard, they will understand.


The Hebrew word for ‘act wisely’ is יַשְׂכִּ֖יל which can also mean ‘prosper’. Thus ‘my servant will prosper’, as maintained by the PBS Urdu Bible. Like the first servant song, God is drawing attention to the servant (cf. 42:1).

In verse 14, the Hebrew literally reads ‘appalled at you’ עָלֶ֙יךָ֙. This has been changed to ‘at him’ in line with the Syriac OT and the Targum. Notice the paradox of the servant being exalted and also being appalled at. 

This paradox can only be explained with the reference to the cross of Christ that displayed God’s wisdom (1 Corinthians 1:18). Christ’s crucifixion paints a picture of senseless violence, yet was the pathway for the exaltation of God’s son.

The servant is marred beyond human likeness, yet he ‘sprinkles’ יַזֶּה֙ the nations, which refers to atonement (Exodus 29:20-21, Leviticus 16:14-15). Also notice here that this atonement extends beyond Israel to all the nations. In fact, Paul uses this passage to describe his own mission in Romans 15:21[3].

Let us now turn to the second section:

Isaiah 53

An outline will be helpful at this point, since we have the whole chapter in front of us:
·         1-3: Physical affliction
·         4-5: Atonement
·         6: Human ignorance and the deliverance of the Lamb
·         7-10: The Suffering Servant
·         11: Exaltation
·         12: Intercession [4]

Once again, the identity of the servant is debatable in this passage. According to 52:3, it seems that Israel went into slavery for no sin of its own. And indeed it looks plausible, considering the fact that slavery and captivity were a natural phenomena in the ancient world. 

However, even though Israel was oppressed by Babylon, it was by no means sinless. (Isaiah 1:16-18). The servant, on the other hand, suffers not for his own sin (as people mistakenly assume in verse 4), but for the sins of others. In fact, most scholars agree that verse 5 is referring to penal substitution[5].

Who is the “we” in verse 5? If we make the connection with the ‘nations and kinds’ of 52:15, then perhaps this refers to the gentiles.
From verse 7 onwards, we find striking similarities with the Gospel. Jesus Christ, knowing God’s will, remained quiet in front Pilate, Herod, and the High Priest. This is in staunch comparison to Jeremiah (Jeremiah 11:18-20, 12:1-3).

‘..he was cut off from the land of the living’’ refers to Christ’s death, and then we also find a remarkable prophecy about Christ’s burial in verse 9. The ‘wicked’ and the ‘rich’ are not synonyms. In fact, this is a contrast between how people perceived Christ and how he was vindicated by God through the divine provision of Joseph’s grave (Matthew 27:57-60)[6].

The fact that he will ‘see his offspring’ implies an existence beyond the grave, which is literally fulfilled in Christ’s resurrection. In verse 11, the NIV adds ‘he will see the light of life’ based on the LXX.  It is also interesting to note that ‘by his knowledge’ can also be translated as ‘by knowledge of him’, which means faith in Christ.

Finally, the exaltation of verse 12 reminds us of what Paul wrote in Philippians, that Christ ‘made himself nothing’, which echoes Isaiah 53:12. To sum up, the fact that Isaiah 53 predicts the death, burial, resurrection, and exaltation of Jesus Christ in such great detail is simply remarkable, and one of the evidences of the divine inspiration of scripture.

Conclusion

The study of the 4 servant songs revealed to us the layers of meaning that we often overlook in our reading of the text and preaching from it. There are at least 5 different layers that we tried to uncover in this paper:

1.      The theological understanding of the text
2.      The characteristics of the servant in each passage
3.      The role of the servant in each passage
4.      The inter-relation of the servant songs
5.      The place of the servant in its historical context, its application to Jesus Christ, and to the church

The writer has genuinely attempted to discuss each servant song from these different angles. The material presented will help us answer 2 criticisms; one against predictive prophecy, and one against the application of these songs to Christ.

The first criticism is put up by those who do not believe in God, or at least a God a who communicates with mankind. In their world-view, there is no such thing as predictive prophecy, and so any such text has to be explained away. 

This is usually done by offering alternative meanings, and most commonly, but ascribing a late date to the writing of the text. In the case of Isaiah, we have seen that all the prophecies were put into writing at least a 100 years before Jesus was born. Also, the clear wording of texts like Isaiah 53 don’t need a revised interpretation that denies the atoning work of Christ.

The second criticism is put by Jews, with some justification. We cannot disregard the Biblical association of the servant with Israel. We also cannot ignore the suffering of  the Jewish nation, especially during World War II during the Holocaust. We all due respect, we need to understand that the servant of the Lord suffers for the sins of others and not of his own. This simply cannot be applied to the nation of Israel historically.

Hence, Christians are justified in applying these passages, not only to Christ, but to the church as well.

Bibliography

Drane, John. Introducing the Old Testament. Revised edition. USA: Lion Hudson plc, 2000.

Gaebelein, Frank. E. ed. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1986.

Harrison, R.K. Introduction to the Old Testament. USA:William B.Eardmans, 1969.

Sultan, Pervaiz. “OT Prophets: Class Notes”. St. Thomas’ Theological College, April-June 2017.

Sultan, Pervaiz. River of God. Karachi: Fact Publications, 2013.

Web, Barry. The Message of Isaiah. Leicester, England: IVP, 1996.



[1] Frank. E Gaebelein, ed. The Expositor’s Bible Commentary (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 1986), 305.
[2] Ibid, 300.
[3] Ibid, 301.
[4] Class notes.
[5] Gaebelein, 306.
[6] Ibid, 304.

Monday, 29 May 2017

The Servant of the Lord - Part 3

Isaiah 50:4-11: The Servant Uplifts the Weary

The Sovereign Lord has given me a well-instructed tongue, to know the word that sustains the weary. He wakens me morning by morning, wakens my ear to listen like one being instructed. The Sovereign Lord has opened my ears; I have not been rebellious, I have not turned away.
I offered my back to those who beat me, my cheeks to those who pulled out my beard; I did not hide my face from mocking and spitting Because the Sovereign Lord helps me, I will not be disgraced. Therefore have I set my face like flint, and I know I will not be put to shame.
He who vindicates me is near. Who then will bring charges against me? Let us face each other!
Who is my accuser? Let him confront me! It is the Sovereign Lord who helps me. Who will condemn me? They will all wear out like a garment; the moths will eat them up. Who among you fears the Lord and obeys the word of his servant? Let the one who walks in the dark, who has no light, trust in the name of the Lord and rely on their God. But now, all you who light fires and provide yourselves with flaming torches, go, walk in the light of your fires and of the torches you have set ablaze. This is what you shall receive from my hand: You will lie down in torment.


The 3rd servant song reveals more about the character of the servant. He is the man of integrity and sacrifice, and this is one of the major themes of the servant songs. This song has the least direct implications for Christ as such, with the exception of verse 6[1]

But even then it can refer to the prophets and Jews in general because they usually kept beards. This can also refer to Jeremiah (see next section), or perhaps anyone who is persecuted for the Lord.

But of course there are messianic implications, and we have to recognize them. Christ himself declared: ‘Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest.’ (Matthew 11:28). The liturgy of the Church of Pakistan (Book of Common Prayer) includes this verse before the absolution.

Anyway, in this song, the servant is a disciple of God. In verse 4, לִמּוּדִ֔ים לְשׁ֣וֹן translated ‘well-instructed tongue’ literally means ‘the tongue of disciples’. The PBS Urdu translation uses the singular noun (شاگِرد ), but captures the literal meaning of the Hebrew.

The servant as the disciple of God is a rare expression. During his lectures, Dr. Sultan stated that this could refer to a spirit of discipleship, i.e. a mindset to learn from anyone. However, in the River of God, he explains: ‘the text of the verse doesn’t mention that the servant has a become a disciple of the Lord in a way that the Lord is his teacher…..this is an indirect relation.[2]’  

An indirect relation means that while the Lord upholds the disciple through His grace and gives him a spirit of discipleship, the servant learns not from God directly but from His word.

The task of the servant expands. He is to give hope to the hopeless through the word of God. Who are the weary?

The weary are the disheartened, who because of deteriorating conditions cannot see any ray of hope that someone will take care of their spiritual and physical needs, everything from the forgiveness of sins to social uplifting[3].   

To help the weary with scripture is also a rare expression. All servants of God should have a scriptural commitment to the uplift of people. This evangelical-social concern needs to be highlighted. This concern goes beyond preaching and quoting the Bible.

It means using Biblical principles to help people solve their problems. This was the fundamental difference between Christ and the Pharisees, and should be an ongoing distinction between the followers of Christ and other religious leaders.

Christ removed all kinds of yokes from people, including those laid upon people by Bible-quoting Pharisees. There is another messianic clue in this servant song. 

The servant is not afraid of persecution. He is confident of the Lord’s will, because he wakes up every morning to discover it. And the servant is also not rebellious, which means he is someone apart from Israel who disobeyed the Lord on a national level time and again.


[1] Ibid.
[2] Sultan, 385.
[3] Ibid, 386.

Sunday, 28 May 2017

The Servant of the Lord- Part 2

Isaiah 42:1-4: Israel as the Model Servant

Here is my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen one in whom I delight; I will put my Spirit on him, and he will bring justice to the nations.  He will not shout or cry out, or raise his voice in the streets.  A bruised reed he will not break, and a smoldering wick he will not snuff out. In faithfulness, he will bring forth justice he will not falter or be discouraged till he establishes justice on earth.  In his teaching the islands will put their hope.

41:8 explicitly declares Israel as the servant of the Lord. However, how can a captive Israel ‘bring justice to the nations’? Perhaps this is Cyrus, but verse 3 excludes any military activity[1]. What is the identity of the servant? 

Israel is God’s ‘chosen one’ in the Old Testament. Dr. Pervaiz Sultan writes: ‘God calls Israel his servant. He chose Israel from the very beginning, and He delighted in doing so. God singled out Israel from all other nations and chose her for Himself’[2].

However, this divine election came with divine commands of justice and righteousness, and Israel repeatedly failed this criteria. Yet God made Israel a model of the true servant of the Lord who was to come, i.e. Jesus Christ. And Christ’s election includes the election of the church as well[3].

Note that when we say ‘servant of the Lord’, we place equal emphasis on both. In other words, the servant symbolizes the character and will of God.  He reflects God’s attitude because he is His servant.

The servant is anointed by God’s Spirit. If the Spirit is the total self of God, then the servant has a greater anointing than the prophets and kings of Israel[4]. This is the messianic angle of this song. The Spirit of God is the spirit of justice (verse 1). The modern charismatic fails to recognize this essential fact.

The servant of the Lord is not a politician, but his main role is justice. It is his vocation. In the book of Isaiah, justice (מִשְׁפָּ֑ט miš·pāṭ) has wide-ranging implications. Justice in Isaiah means to preserve the universal order (40:14), to preserve Israel as God’s holy nation (40:27), and to glorify God among the nations (41:1)[5]. Thus, the task of the servant lies far beyond what Israel achieved historically.

According to 42:2, the ministry of the servant lies beyond Israel (and by implication, the church). If the objectives of God historically surpassed Israel, then they can surpass the church as well[6].

These verses also present the servant as a gentle soul. He is gentle because he his faithful to his calling, and God delights in him. To sum up, the servant of the Lord is gentle, peaceful, righteous, low-profile, and long-lasting[7].

Isaiah 49:1-6: The Servant Restores Israel

Listen to me, you islands, hear this, you distant nations: Before I was born the Lord called me; from my mother’s womb he has spoken my name. 2 He made my mouth like a sharpened sword,    in the shadow of his hand he hid me; he made me into a polished arrow and concealed me in his quiver. 3 He said to me, “You are my servant, Israel, in whom I will display my splendor.” 4 But I said, “I have labored in vain; I have spent my strength for nothing at all. Yet what is due me is in the Lord’s hand, and my reward is with my God.” 5 And now the Lord says— he who formed me in the womb to be his servant to bring Jacob back to him and gather Israel to himself, for I am honored in the eyes of the Lord  and my God has been my strength—he says: “It is too small a thing for you to be my servant to restore the tribes of Jacob and bring back those of Israel I have kept. I will also make you a light for the Gentiles, that my salvation may reach to the ends of the earth.

As in the previous passages, Israel is God’s servant in the first instance (49:3). However, note that the role shifts from Isaiah to someone else in verse 5. The task of the servant in this song is threefold:

1.      To display God’s splendor
2.      To restore the tribes of Jacob
3.      To be a light to the gentiles

The shift from the servant as Israel to someone who restores Israel is noteworthy. The identity of the servant is still not clear in this passage, but we can recognize him as the true servant and the true Israel[8].

Again, this can refer to Cyrus, who brought Israel back from captivity. But how exactly was Cyrus a light for the nations and the instrument of global salvation?

Perhaps we can say that these verses refer to more than one person, but all of these individuals are designated the servant of YHWH. This also tells us that the servant has both an immediate and a broader role. 

In Luke 2:28-32, Simeon applied these words to the baby Jesus by calling him ‘light for revelation to the Gentiles, and the glory of your people Israel’. However, the task of proclaiming this salvation to the ‘ends of the earth’ was entrusted by Christ to his church (Matthew 28:19, Acts 1:8). Thus the ministry of the servant still continues.




[1] Barry Web, The Message of Isaiah (Leicester, England: IVP, 1996), 172.
[2] Pervaiz Sultan, River of God (Karachi: Fact Publications, 2013), 373.
[3] Ibid, 374.
[4] Class notes.
[5] Webb, 171.
[6] Class notes.
[7] Ibid.
[8] Ibid.

Friday, 26 May 2017

The Servant of the Lord-Part 1

The book of Isaiah formerly starts the prophetic section of the Old Testament (OT) scripture. Traditionally the 66 chapters of this book are divided into two major sections: chapters 1-39 and then chapters 40-66. Scholars agree that chapter 4 launches a new section of the book of Isaiah, which is theologically connected to, but independent of the first 39 chapters. In fact, the introductory verses of chapter 40 appear to be written 70 years after the preceding chapter[1].

Our interest is in this latter section, because it contains the ‘Servant Songs’. There are 4 servant songs: Isaiah 42:1-4, 49:1-6, 50:4-11, and 52:13-53:12. We will briefly analyze the first 3 songs and then look at the last song (Isaiah 53) in some detail, as this prophetic passage closely resembles the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ.

There are several reasons to study the servant songs:
·         They provide insights into the literary genre of Old Testament prophecy (and Hebrew poetry)
·         They provide a message of hope to those who are weary
·         They provide guidelines on how the church should act as the servant of the Lord today

Perhaps the most crucial reason to study these texts is to uncover the identity of the servant. There is considerable debate as to who this servant is. Israel is explicitly called the servant of the Lord (41:8, 42:1). John Drane writes: ‘This has led many scholars to conclude that when Isaiah talks of the suffering servant, it is simply another way of referring to God’s people, Israel.[2]

But this is not the complete picture. Drane continues: ‘…things are said about the servant which are explicitly denied about Israel[3]’. Examples include:

·         The servant doesn’t rebel (50:5), but Israel constantly disobeyed God
·         The servant doesn’t suffer for his own wrongdoing (53:3-5), unlike Israel
·         Israel needed restoration, but the servant was sent to restore (49:5-6, 53:4-6)[4]

Of course, the New Testament freely applies that servant passages to Christ. In this paper, we will try to look at the historical development of the concept of the Messiah and how it narrows down to Jesus and then to the church today.


Literary Context of the Servant Songs

Before we delve into the verses, it is imperative that we study the literary context of the servant songs. As already stated, scholars widely agree that the book of Isaiah has two major divisions which are possibly written by two different ‘Isaiahs’. There are many arguments that support this idea.

To begin with, chapters 40-55 contain no biographical details about the prophet, in contrast to chapter 1-39 where we see many personal details about Isaiah, especially his correspondence with the kings of Judah[5].

There are also stylistic differences between the two sections, but discussing them is beyond the scope of this post. Most significantly, chapters 40-55 assume Babylonian captivity and an imminent return of the exiles to Jerusalem (43:14-15, 47:1-15, 48:20). This also gives us a clue regarding the date of writing of the servant songs (see next section). 

Based on these arguments, the idea of more than one author of this book has been around for a long time. Some refer to the writer of chapters 40-55 as ‘Isaiah of Babylon, Second or Deutero-Isaiah’[6].

The prophet Isaiah had a group of disciples who recorded his messages (8:16), and possibly the writer(s) of the servant songs belong to this group. Perhaps this is why they didn’t create a second book, but added these messages to Isaiah’s corpus, because he is the source of these prophetic messages. This is also why the New Testament always refers to Isaiah as one unit (Matthew 3:3, Luke 4:17 etc.), and the church is justified to refer to the author of the book as Isaiah.

R.K. Harrison comments: ‘Even those scholars who subscribe to divisive theories of authorship can hardly fail to be impressed by the remarkable degree of theological agreement that exists in the early chapters…..and the work of the alleged Deutero-Isaiah’[7].

Before moving on, let us also briefly discuss the text of Isaiah. Our modern Old Testament translations are by and large based on the Masoretic Text (MT), which was scribed centuries after the time of Christ. Can the similarities between the servant of the Lord in Isaiah and Jesus be the result of tampering and corruption of the text by the church?

Not at all. Harrison states: ‘The Hebrew text of Isaiah has, on the whole, been very well preserved….[8]’.  The Qumran scrolls of Isaiah (dated to around 100 B.C.) demonstrate the veracity of the text. Yes, there are variations between the Qumran text and the MT, but ‘the variations are mostly occasioned by considerations of orthography’[9], i.e. punctuation. We will discuss further textual notes when commenting on the songs.

Historical Context of the Servant Songs

Considering the references to the Babylonian captivity, we can imagine that the servant songs were written or compiled some time before 539 B.C.[10] The historical background of these songs, hence, is the rise of Cyrus and his Persian kingdom, and the prophecies describe the imminent fall of Babylon. Isaiah the prophet, however, was alive some 150 years before these events in Jerusalem during the kingships of Ahaz and Hezekiah[11]

With this background, will begin our study of the songs in the next blog post.





[1] Pervaiz Sultan, “OT Prophets: Class Notes”, St. Thomas’ Theological College, April-June 2017.
[2] John Drane, Introducing the Old Testament, revised edition (USA: Lion Hudson plc, 2000), 192.
[3] Ibid.
[4] Ibid.
[5] Ibid, 189.
[6] Ibid.
[7] R.K. Harrison, Introduction to the Old Testament (USA:William B.Eardmans, 1969), 795
[8] Ibid, 798.
[9] Ibid
[10] Drane, 189.
[11] Ibid. 

Sunday, 14 May 2017

Christianity and Motherhood

Hello and a Happy Mother’s Day!

Today I will be talking about what Bible says about motherhood, and I will divide this article into 3 points:

1)God is Our Mother

I often notice that on mother’s day, we focus all our attention on our mothers, whereas on father’s day, there is less focus on the father and more on God as our father. However, the Bible teaches not only God is our father, but He is our everything. The Bible talks about God in relational terms. He is our father (Matthew 6:9), husband (Revelation 22:17), sibling (Roman 8:29), shepherd (Psalm 23), and also our mother, and Isaiah 49:15). 

“like an eagle that stirs up its nest     and hovers over its young, that spreads its wings to catch them     and carries them aloft. The Lord alone led him;     no foreign god was with him”- Deuteronomy 32:11-12

“Can a mother forget the baby at her breast
    and have no compassion on the child she has borne?

Though she may forget,
    I will not forget you!” – Isaiah 49:15


“Jerusalem, Jerusalem……how often I have longed to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings….” –Matthew 23:37

In fact, the New Testament teaches that all human relationships emanate from God.

2)  Mary-The Mother of Our Lord

We cannot talk about the message of motherhood in the Bible without discussing the mother of our Lord. In fact, Mother’s Day was originally celebrated to honor Mother Mary.

Mary was a simple Jewish girl from Galilee. She was known for piety during her youth, which is the same time when a messenger from God visited her.  What was the message? 

Mary was supposed to give birth to a son in her young age, even before she was married! And the child to be born was to become the Savior of the world. Hesitant at first, Mary obeyed these commands, putting her life and honor at risk. For this obedience and devotion to the will of God, she was to be blessed by all generations. 

She is even revered in the religion of Islam as the mother of Jesus Christ, and a chaste woman. Her relationship with Jesus was also unique, for although she gave birth to him, He was in fact the savior of the world. She cared for Jesus as His mother, and then gradually recognized His true calling. After Jesus started His ministry, Mary became devoted to the cause as well.

Apart from the troubles of poverty, Mary had to endure the torturous death of her young son on the cross. But even after that, she chose to stay with the disciples He left behind him. The last reference we find of Mary in Bible tells us that she was living with disciples, committed to the cause of Christ (Acts 1:14).

Thus in Mary, we find the example of the ideal women and the ideal mother who accepted her child as a blessing from God and raised him to be perfect in the eyes of God. Jesus loved Mary to the end (John 13:1).

3) The Role of the Christian Mother

Finally, we will discuss the role of the Christian mother. Paul says 1 Timothy 2:15 ‘But women will be saved through childbearing’
On the surface, it seems that Paul is saying that the only job of the Christian woman is to bear children.  Also remember that in Genesis 3:16, child bearing is presented as a curse when God said: ‘I will make your pains in childbearing very severe…………….’

This verse suggests that the severe pain of labor is a reminder to the woman of her sin. We may think that God is being unfair, but we can only understand Genesis 3:16 and 1 Timothy 2:15 if we see their connection.

If there is no childbirth, there is no offspring to crush the head of the serpent, and no salvation, and no end to the curse. What this means is that the curse on the woman is the very key to salvation of the universe!

The woman is saved by enduring the curse she was subjected to. This is what Paul says in 1 Timothy 2:15. For Eve, salvation came through childbearing because though her sin was supposed to make her perish, God gave her a new life, and motherhood was the physical demonstration of her salvation.

Mary was also saved through childbirth, not only because she obeyed the word of God, but she also gave birth to the savior of the world. Through her motherhood, God’s plan of a redemption was executed, and a redeemed community came into existence of which Mary was also a part (Acts 1:14).

This redeemed community is then sustained through Christian mothers who raise their children in grace.  A great example of this is found in what Paul says to Timothy ‘I am reminded of your sincere faith, which first lived in your grandmother Lois and in your mother Eunice’ (2 Timothy 1:5).

We are always thankful to God for Christian mothers in the church 
who despite all their problems bring their children to church with them, a job that is sometimes neglected by fathers. Mothers have an important role in God’s plan of salvation, and that is the privilege Christianity gives to women.

God bless you!

Thursday, 12 January 2017

Alleged Contradictions in the Genealogy of Jesus

It would be helpful to start by defining our terms:
  • Alleged

: said, without proof, to have taken place or to have a specified illegal or undesirable quality.
  •    “Contradiction”

:  the act of saying something that is opposite or very different in meaning to something else

: a difference or disagreement between two things which means that both cannot be true

Source: Merriam-Webster's Learner's Dictionary

In philosophy, contradictory statements are those that cannot both be true in the same sense at the same time, e.g. the two propositions "A is B" and "A is not B" are mutually exclusive.

If we take this definition of contradiction, then there are no contradictions at all in the Bible, specifically the New Testament. That is why I used the word ‘alleged’, because there are only apparent difficulties that need to be resolved.

T'oros Roslin - Ancestors of Christ



The Genealogies of Christ

It is a known fact that Matthew and Luke present two different genealogies of Jesus. However, again, considering the definitions of ‘contradiction’, these are not two contradictory accounts of Jesus’ family tree.

In fact, to even claim that these genealogies are contradictions is to say that for 2000 years, Christians have not noticed these glaring discrepancies in the Bible! Actually, this argument actually backfires on those who claim that Christians have been freely tampering with their scriptures. If that was the case, we will not have these contradictions in the Bible, would we? Someone would have ‘fixed’ them by now. So the very presence of these lists is evidence of the preservation of the New Testament.

On the contrary, we have evidence that from the early centuries of Christianity, scholarly attempts to explain the differences between the two genealogies. Consider Julius Africanus (as quoted by Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History 1.7) who proposed the theory that Matthew presents the natural lineage of David, while Luke presents his royal lineage.

Today, the most common theories to explain the two different genealogies are as follows:

1.     Royal and Natural Genealogy

What this means is that Matthew presents David’s ‘royal’ lineage through Solomon, while Luke presents David’s natural descent through his son Nathan. This is the complete opposite of what Africanus proposed in the 3rd century. The theory has widespread support and does have some weight. There is also evidence to suggest that a person could have a double line, and thereby, two genealogies[1].

However, this doesn’t explain why Joseph has two different fathers (Jacob and Heli) and grandfathers (Mattan and Mattat)? For that, we have to examine the other two solutions.

2.     Joseph’s and Mary’s Genealogy

On this view, Matthew records Joseph’s lineage whereas Luke records Mary’s. But then why doesn’t Luke list Mary? It is suggested that this is due to Hebrew tradition of listing descent only through males.

Putting aside the fact that I am yet to find any historical evidence to establish this practice, why would Luke, being Greek, conform to a Jewish practice?

Nevertheless, there are good reasons to suppose that it is not Joseph’s but Mary’s genealogy:

·         The fact that while Joseph is the focus of Matthew’s first 2 chapters, Mary is the focus of the first 3 chapters of Luke. In the former, the angel always comes to Joseph, while in the latter, the angel comes to Mary.

·         Luke doesn’t say that Joseph is the father of Christ, but that this is only “supposed” (ἐνομίζετο – enomizeto)

·         All names in the genealogy are preceded by the definite article (τοῦ- tou), except for that of Joseph.

·         One call also read this genealogy as “…being son of (as was supposed of Joseph), and of Heli, and of Mattat….” and so on. Hence, this means that Joseph is not the son of Heli, but Jesus is the son of both, of Joseph because he wed Mary and of Heli because he is the father of Mary. In fact, the word “son” (υἱοῦ - huiou) has also been used for descendants in these genealogies (Matt 1:1). Hence, the genealogy goes all the way back to establish that Jesus is ‘the son of Adam, and the son of God’ (Luke 3:38), which is what we hear at Jesus’ baptism as few verses earlier (v 22)

·         If Heli is the father-in-law of Joseph, then Joseph can be called the “son” of Heli. We have Biblical precedence for this (Ruth 1:11-12).

Finally, it has been claimed that the Jerusalem Talmud calls Mary the “daughter of Heli” (Hagigah 2:4). If this is indeed the correct translation of the passage in question, then we have historical evidence for this theory.

3.     Levirate Marriage

Finally, we have the theory of the levirate marriage. According to the Law of Moses, if a man died without having children, then his brother will marry the widow. The children born from this marriage will have the name of the deceased brother (Deuteronomy 25:5-6). Hence, it is argued that Jacob and Heli were brothers. When Jacob died, Heli married his widow and had Joseph, who will technically be the son of both Jacob (legally) and Heli (biologically).

However, this assumes that Mattan (Matthew 1:15) and Mattat (Luke 3:24) refer to the same person, which they are not. But even if they were one person, one would still ask as to why would Luke name both Jacob and Heli? The law clearly stated that the children will be named after the deceased brother.

I personally find the 2nd theory of Jacob’s and Mary’s genealogy most convincing. In any case, we have to consider the fact any genealogy involving a virgin birth is a “unique case”[2], and has to be treated as such.

In the ultimate analysis, Matthew and Luke did not record the genealogies of Christ for historical purposes only. Their main aim was telling the Good News to their readers. However, this no way suggests that the writers of the New Testament were forging evidence to support their theological motives. They were careful as to what they wrote (Luke 1:1-4).

It is also worth noting that Greco-Roman biographies were not written as scientifically as they are today, and the writers were not concerned about impartial objectivity. It was perfectly alright for ancient histories and biographies to be written to promote a particular viewpoint, and the material to be arranged not only chronologically, but thematically as well[3]. Several biographies of that period that used this approach of writing history are considered trustworthy by historians, so why the same shouldn’t be said of the New Testament?

So the reason we have 2 different genealogies of Christ is that both Matthew and Luke are presenting different aspects of God’s salvific activity in the incarnation of Christ. In the Old Testament, in Genesis 12:3, where God says that all nations in the world will be blessed through Abraham. As time goes on, these prophecies become more specific, and we know that the Promised One will come from:

  • Isaac (Gen 17:18-19)
  • Tribe of Judah (Gen 49:10)
  • Line of David (2 Samuel 7:14)
  • Town of Bethlehem (Micah 5:2)

When we open the New Testament, the very first words are:

"This is the genealogy of Jesus the Messiah the son of David, the son of Abraham"

And when we open Matthew 2: the first verse is:

After Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea,...., 
….thus fulfilling the identity of the Promised One. And Matthew’s Gospel ends with the blessings to nations (Matthew 28:19).
But there is another prophecy in the Old Testament, in fact it is the first prophecy in the Bible about a promised Redeemer:

"And I will put enmity
    between you and the woman,
    and between your offspring and hers;
he will crush your head,
    and you will strike his heel.” (Genesis 3:15)

Of course, this refers to the ongoing tussle of good and evil, the battle between the forces of darkness and light as long as the world continues. But we also find a reference to someone who is about to come, someone who will crush the head of satan for good. This son of humanity, the universal savior, is who we find in the genealogy that Luke records, which goes not back to the Hebrew patriarchs, but to Adam himself.

We can argue the technicalities of both genealogies for hours on end, but if we fail to understand their message, then it will just be an exercise in futility. The content of the gospels is meant to inspire faith (John 20:30-31), and genealogies are no exceptions.





[1]Frank E. Gaebelein, The Expositor’s Bible Commentary, volume 8 (Grand Rapid, Michigan: Zondervan, 1984), 64.

[2]Ibid, 862.
[3] Craig Blomberg’s chapter on The Historical Reliability of the New Testament, 216 in Reasonable Faith
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